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【阿米巴症 Amebiasis Intestinal】

當寄生蟲或其卵(囊腫)被口腔攝入時,就會發生阿米巴病。 阿米巴病患者的糞便中含有溶組織內阿米巴寄生蟲。

當感染者沒有以衛生的方式處理糞便或如廁後沒有正確洗手時,感染就會傳播。

被污染的手可能會將寄生蟲傳播到其他人可能吃過的食物和其他人可能接觸過的表面。

為受感染的嬰兒更換尿片時,手也會被污染。

潛伏期可由數日至數月不等,一般為 2 - 4 星期(感染阿米巴病後,可能需要數天、數月或數年才會發病

成因

  • 居住於院舍、到訪衞生情況欠佳的發展中國家的旅遊人士或來自該些地方的移民、以及男男性接觸者,染病的機會較大。
  • 飲用受污染的水
  • 食用受污染的生蔬菜水果
  • 無保護的口肛性接觸
  • 有些人的糞便中帶有寄生蟲或包囊,但沒有任何症狀,但他們仍然可以將疾病傳染給其他人

症狀

  • 發燒
  • 發冷
  • 腹痛
  • 胃痙攣
  • 腹瀉(可能含有血液)
  • 糞便帶有血或黏液等
  • 溶組織內阿米巴可入侵肝臟並形成膿腫,較罕見的情況下更會蔓延到肺部或腦部等其他器官。其他併發症包括腸道發炎,嚴重者可引致腸道穿孔。

Amoebiasis occurs when the parasites or their eggs (cysts) are taken in by mouth. People with amoebiasis have Entamoeba histolytica parasites in their faeces (poo). The infection can spread when infected people do not dispose of their faeces in a sanitary manner or do not wash their hands properly after going to the toilet.

Contaminated hands can then spread the parasites to food that may be eaten by other people and surfaces that may be touched by other people. Hands can also become contaminated when changing the nappies of an infected infant.

Some people carry the parasite or cysts in their faeces without having symptoms, but they can still pass the disease on to other people.

The incubation period is variable, and may range from a few days to several months. It is usually 2 – 4 weeks.(After you are infected with amoebiasis it may take days, months or years before you become ill. However, the illness usually develops two to four weeks after infection.)

Risk Factors

  • People who live in institutions, travellers who travel to or immigrants from developing countries with poor sanitary conditions, and men who have sex with men are at a higher risk of getting the disease
  • Drinking contaminated water
  • Eating contaminated raw vegetables and fruit
  • Unprotected oral-anal sexual contact

Symptoms

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Abdominal pain
  • Stomach cramps
  • Diarrhoea (which may contain blood)
  • Passing stool with blood or mucus etc

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